Demystifying Pelvic Floor Disorders

In Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy by Emily TranLeave a Comment

By PHRC Admin



Pelvic floor disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect millions worldwide. Despite their prevalence, these disorders often remain undiagnosed and untreated due to lack of awareness and social stigma. In this blog post, we will summarize key information from an article by Today’s Woman that our cofounder, Stephanie Prendergast was interviewed for. We will talk about pelvic floor disorders, highlighting their causes, symptoms, and available treatment options.


Understanding Pelvic Floor Disorders 

The pelvic floor is a complex network of muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues that support the bladder, uterus, and rectum. Pelvic floor disorders occur when these muscles and tissues become weakened or damaged. Common types of pelvic floor disorders include:

  1. Pelvic organ prolapse: Occurs when the pelvic organs drop and press against the vaginal walls.
  2. Urinary incontinence: The involuntary leakage of urine.
  3. Fecal incontinence: The inability to control bowel movements.

Causes and Risk Factors 

Various factors can contribute to the development of pelvic floor disorders, including:

  • Pregnancy and childbirth
  • Aging
  • Menopause
  • Obesity
  • Hysterectomy or other pelvic surgeries
  • Chronic constipation or straining during bowel movements


The symptoms of pelvic floor disorders can vary depending on the specific condition. Some common symptoms include:

  • A feeling of pressure or heaviness in the pelvic area
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Unintentional leakage of urine or feces
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder or bowels completely
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections

Seeking Help and Treatment 

It is crucial for those experiencing symptoms of pelvic floor disorders to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a gynecologist or urogynecologist, who specializes in these conditions. A thorough evaluation will help determine the appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Treatment options for pelvic floor disorders can range from conservative to surgical, depending on the severity of the condition and individual needs. Some common treatments include:

  1. Pelvic floor exercises: Can help strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and improve their function; this should be prescribed by a pelvic floor physical therapist following their evaluation of your pelvic floor.
  2. Biofeedback: A technique that uses sensors to monitor muscle activity and provide real-time feedback, helping patients learn to control their pelvic floor muscles more effectively. In the clinics of Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center, biofeedback is given manually from the physical therapist and not via a device.
  3. Medications: Certain medications can help manage symptoms of urinary or fecal incontinence. Consult with your healthcare team to ensure proper prescriptions are given (if needed).
  4. Pessary: A removable device inserted into the vagina to support prolapsed pelvic organs.
  5. Surgery: Various surgical procedures are available to repair damaged pelvic floor structures or correct organ prolapse.

Pelvic floor disorders are a common yet often overlooked issue affecting many. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options, one can take the necessary steps to seek help and improve their quality of life. Remember, early intervention and open communication with healthcare professionals can make a significant difference in managing pelvic floor disorders and maintaining overall well-being.



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What are pelvic floor muscles?

The pelvic floor muscles are a group of muscles that run from the coccyx to the pubic bone. They are part of the core, helping to support our entire body as well as providing support for the bowel, bladder and uterus. These muscles help us maintain bowel and bladder control and are involved in sexual pleasure and orgasm. The technical name of the pelvic floor muscles is the Levator Ani muscle group. The pudendal nerve, the levator ani nerve, and branches from the S2 – S4 nerve roots innervate the pelvic floor muscles. They are under voluntary and autonomic control, which is a unique feature only they possess compared to other muscle groups.

What is pelvic floor physical therapy?

Pelvic floor physical therapy is a specialized area of physical therapy. Currently, physical therapists need advanced post-graduate education to be able to help people with pelvic floor dysfunction because pelvic floor disorders are not yet being taught in standard physical therapy curricula. The Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center provides extensive training for our staff because we recognize the limitations of physical therapy education in this unique area.

What happens at pelvic floor therapy?

During an evaluation for pelvic floor dysfunction the physical therapist will take a detailed history. Following the history the physical therapist will leave the room to allow the patient to change and drape themselves. The physical therapist will return to the room and using gloved hands will perform an external and internal manual assessment of the pelvic floor and girdle muscles. The physical therapist will once again leave the room and allow the patient to dress. Following the manual examination there may also be an examination of strength, motor control, and overall biomechanics and neuromuscular control. The physical therapist will then communicate the findings to the patient and together with their patient they establish an assessment, short term and long term goals and a treatment plan. Typically people with pelvic floor dysfunction are seen one time per week for one hour for varying amounts of time based on the severity and chronicity of the disease. A home exercise program will be established and the physical therapist will help coordinate other providers on the treatment team. Typically patients are seen for 3 months to a year.

What is pudendal neuralgia and how is it treated?

Pudendal Neuralgia is a clinical diagnosis that means pain in the sensory distribution of the pudendal nerve. The pudendal nerve is a mixed nerve that exits the S2 – S4 sacral nerve roots, we have a right and left pudendal nerve and each side has three main trunks: the dorsal branch, the perineal branch, and the inferior rectal branch. The branches supply sensation to the clitoris/penis, labia/scrotum, perineum, anus, the distal ⅓ of the urethra and rectum, and the vulva and vestibule. The nerve branches also control the pelvic floor muscles. The pudendal nerve follows a tortuous path through the pelvic floor and girdle, leaving it vulnerable to compression and tension injuries at various points along its path.

Pudendal Neuralgia occurs when the nerve is unable to slide, glide and move normally and as a result, people experience pain in some or all of the above-mentioned areas. Pelvic floor physical therapy plays a crucial role in identifying the mechanical impairments that are affecting the nerve. The physical therapy treatment plan is designed to restore normal neural function. Patients with pudendal neuralgia require pelvic floor physical therapy and may also benefit from medical management that includes pharmaceuticals and procedures such as pudendal nerve blocks or botox injections.

What is interstitial cystitis and how is it treated?

Interstitial Cystitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by irritative bladder symptoms such as urinary urgency, frequency, and hesitancy in the absence of infection. Research has shown the majority of patients who meet the clinical definition have pelvic floor dysfunction and myalgia. Therefore, the American Urologic Association recommends pelvic floor physical therapy as first-line treatment for Interstitial Cystitis. Patients will benefit from pelvic floor physical therapy and may also benefit from pharmacologic management or medical procedures such as bladder instillations.

Who is the Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Team?

The Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center was founded by Elizabeth Akincilar and Stephanie Prendergast in 2006, they have been treating people with pelvic floor disorders since 2001. They were trained and mentored by a medical doctor and quickly became experts in treating pelvic floor disorders. They began creating courses and sharing their knowledge around the world. They expanded to 11 locations in the United States and developed a residency style training program for their employees with ongoing weekly mentoring. The physical therapists who work at PHRC have undergone more training than the majority of pelvic floor physical therapists and as a result offer efficient and high quality care.

How many years of experience do we have?

Stephanie and Liz have 24 years of experience and help each and every team member become an expert in the field through their training and mentoring program.

Why PHRC versus anyone else?

PHRC is unique because of the specific focus on pelvic floor disorders and the leadership at our company. We are constantly lecturing, teaching, and staying ahead of the curve with our connections to medical experts and emerging experts. As a result, we are able to efficiently and effectively help our patients restore their pelvic health.

Do we treat men for pelvic floor therapy?

The Pelvic Health and Rehabilitation Center is unique in that the Cofounders have always treated people of all genders and therefore have trained the team members and staff the same way. Many pelvic floor physical therapists focus solely on people with vulvas, this is not the case here.

Do I need pelvic floor therapy forever?

The majority of people with pelvic floor dysfunction will undergo pelvic floor physical therapy for a set amount of time based on their goals. Every 6 -8 weeks goals will be re-established based on the physical improvements and remaining physical impairments. Most patients will achieve their goals in 3 – 6 months. If there are complicating medical or untreated comorbidities some patients will be in therapy longer.

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